History of the olive oil
In the basin of the Mediterranean, the Egyptians, hititas, Phoenicians, and Greeks, already knew the olive tree, and it was them who began to transmit, from generation to generation, its cultivation and the extraction of its oil. The olive tree and its oil in those years, and across the centuries, has had different utilities.
The big expansion of the cultivation of the olive tree came with the Romans in the IIIrd century BC.
The olive oil reached its maximum point with the Arabs. It was its heyday and refinement.
Benefits of the olive oil for the health
The best option is the raw olive oil, since it takes in its natural version, without any form of cooking that could alter its benefits and properties. As regards the recommended daily quantities, he advises himself to take three daily olive oil spoonfuls, what is equivalent to approximately 50 grams of olive oil every day.
- He prepares the cardiovascular diseases: The olive oil is a natural food very rich in healthy greasy acids, especially in greasy acids monoinsaturados and poliinsaturados, which help of very positive form at the time of preparing the cardiovascular diseases, as well as reducing the risk of cardiac illnesses.
- Beneficial in case of cholesterol and triglicéridos high places: So much in case of high cholesterol as of triglicéridos high places, the combination of the olive oil with lemon juice acts of very beneficial form, since while they help to reduce the high levels of cholesterol LDL or villain simultaneously who increases the cholesterol HDL or well. Also it turns out to be very interesting to reduce the high triglicéridos levels.
- The longevity increases, on having reduced the deaths for cardiovascular diseases and cancer. The results obtained in diverse scientific studies have demonstrated a less incidence of several types of cancer in Mediterranean countries (the main consumers of olive oil) compared to countries of the North of Europe and the United States. This is what happens, for example, with the breast cancer related to the consumption of unsaturated fat of origin.
- It favors the digestive function and reduces the gastric acidic secretion.
- It helps to fight the constipation, for having a soft laxative effect.
- Type diminishes the complications incidence in the patients with diabetes II.
- He contributes to a correct mineralization of the bones.
- It redeems a protective role opposite to the stress oxidativo cellular for its high content in antirust fenólicos, like the vitamin E.
Main components of the olive oil
- Greasy acids monoinsaturados (acid oleico).
- Greasy acids.
- Greasy acids poliinsaturados (acid linoleico).
- Tocoferoles (vitamin E). 25 grams of virgin olive oil provide 50 % of the recommended daily ingestion of vitamin E in men, and 62 % in the women, as he retires in the book ‘Virgin olive oil, our food patrimony’.
- Fitoesteroles (capacity hipolipemiante).
- Beta – carotenos (provitamina A).
- Also it contains other substances in low concentration, which in addition to providing to him its typical flavor, color and aroma, act like vitamins and antirust natives, and prevent the oil from becoming mellow and from autooxidizing.
Types of olive oil
A big virgin olive oils variety exists, in Spain there are more than 260 cultivated varieties of olive tree. They differ in its acidity grade, and its content in antirust and other less components, what grants them its diverse biological value. The concentration of the different components depends on factors like the type of olive and its grade of maturation, the vitamin E, the polyphenols, and the beta – caroteno they diminish with the maturation of the olives, therefore the more green they are at the moment of the extraction of the oil, more healthy the final product will prove, but also of the technology used for the pressed one and extraction of the oil.
The olive oils can qualify in:
– Extra virgin olive oil:
It is that of major quality, and its acidity must not overcome 0,8 grades and it is possible to consider olive juice without additives or preservatives. The acidity has not anything in common with the flavor of the oil but it determines the quantity of free greasy acids expressed in acid oleico, and it is related to the process of making of the product.
– Virgin olive oil:
It has a maximum acidity of 2 grades, although it is lower than the extra virgin, also it possesses a high quality, it keeps on being an olive juice without additives or preservatives but it presents some sensory defect for minimum that is.
– Olive oil:
It is most consumed in Spain and it comes from the virgin olive oil miscellany and refined, it is oil of less quality, therefore it contains some of the nutritional qualities of the oils virgins.
Its acidity must not overcome 1st.
– Virgin lampante:
Its acidity is superior to 2 grades and it is not suitable for the consumption due to its strong flavor.
– Refined olive oil:
There are those oils of virgin olive with acidity high degree, or whose characteristics organolépticas do not turn out to be appropriate, well because they come from olives of few quality, or for the procedure used for its extraction, they need to surrender to a process of refined, that eliminates the impurities but also its color and original properties, as what the oil that is obtained after the refined one has a less grade of acidity (it does not overcome 0,3rd), and scarcely it has neither flavor nor aroma.
– Oil of residue of olive:
It is the oil of suitable consumption of less quality for the consumption. This oil cannot be considered of Olive since it is a result of the miscellany of Oil of Residue refined with Virgin olive oil. It must have a grade of acidity not superior to 1 %.
It is obtained applying chemical dissolvers to the residues of the olives that stay after having being ground and pressed. With this procedure it is obtained what is known as an oil of raw residue of olive, which is not eatable. It is necessary to refine it and to mix it with olive oils virgins, different from the lampante, to be able to consume it. There is obtained this way the oil of residue of olive, the least natural and of worse quality, which acidity will not be able to be superior to a grade.
As it happens with the wine, the properties and the uses of the olive oil change according to the type of olive that has been used for its manufacture. Each one has her own characteristics and it is something that it is necessary to consider at the moment of acquiring it.
Four varieties of olives most used for the production of olive oil:
Hojiblanca: Principally chocolate and nut-covered ice cream is fruity oil, green grass, aromatically, sweetly, lightly piquant in gullet and final retaste. The production area in Spain is in Malaga, Seville and Cordova.
Picual: It is the variety most produced in the world, it represents 20 % on a global scale and 50 % in Spain, where the areas of major production are Jaen, Cordova, Granada, Malaga, Ciudad Real and Badajoz. Its characteristics are of oil with smell and fruity flavor of olive, green grass, I am bitter. It is characterized by its high productivity and by adapting itself easily to the conditions of the climate and soil.
Arbequina: It is one of the varieties with major percentage of extraction of oil. Its main characteristics are of green oil with yellowish reflexes, of fresh, fruity aroma with touches of apple and almond. More representative of Catalonia and Aragon, principally.
Cornicabra: The oil has a greenish yellow color, aromas to fruit with flavor to mature fruits, fresh air, lightly bitterly and piquant. Its production area in Spain is in Toledo and Ciudad Real.